Corona Virus: A Multi-disciplinary affect
SARS- CoV-2 is a systemic virus type, only lungs are not being infected through it.
SARS- CoV-2 badly affects Digestive system, Urogenital system, Nervous system and Circulatory system.
SARS- CoV-2 are playing an important role in Inflammatory Cascade.
The strain of Corona virus is SARS-CoV-2 (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Corona Virus-2). It causes Corona Virus Disease-2019 (COVID-19).
Epidemiological studies on COVID-19 reveals that each infection results in 1.4 to 3.9 new ones when no members of the community are immune and no preventive measures taken.
Primarily the virus spreads between people through respiratory droplets produced from coughs or sneezes.
It enters human cells because of there cell surface receptor Angiotensin Converting Enzyme-2 (ACE2).
Pathogenic features of SARS- CoV-2:
SARS- CoV-2 is a type of β- coronavirus (single-stranded, positive-sense RNA virus), with an average diameter of 60–140nm.
Oval or Round with spikes, is the structure of this viral particles.
The entrance of SARS- CoV-2 into cells mediated through cell surface receptors just like HIV gp120, but both follow different entrance mechanism and their site of entry are also different.
HIV gp120 target CD4 receptor and enters into CD4+ T cells, while SARS- CoV-2 binds with ACE2 and enters into mucosal epithelial cells.
Mechanism of SARS-CoV-2 infection:
On the basis of latest researches, SARS- CoV-2 infects Humans’ Cell receptor (ACE2). ACE2 also known as ACEH, a member of Angiotensin- Converting Enzyme (ACE) family of Dipeptidyl- Carboxydipeptidase and Its homologous to ACE1.
ACE1 and ACE2 converts Angiotensin 1 into Angiotensin (Ang) 1–9 and Angiotensin 2 into Ang 1–7.
ACE2 has similarity to AngII type 1 and type 2 receptors and plays very crucial role in many physiological functions, such as Cell proliferation and Hypertrophy, Inflammatory response, Blood pressure and fluid balance.
ACE2 is also present in many organs and tissues, and plays an important role in regulating Cardiovascular, Renal and Reproductive functions.
ACE2 expression is detected in Placental Choriocarcinoma cells (BEWO), Immortalized Human Epidermal cells (HaCaT), Liver Cancer cells (RT4) and Glioblastoma cells (SH-SYSY).
ACE2 protein is also present in Stomach, Small Intestine, Colon, Skin, Lymph nodes, Thymus, Bone marrow, Spleen, Liver, Kidney and Brain.
So, in conclusion we can say that SARS- CoV-2 not only affects the Respiratory System but also has a potential threat to the Digestive system, Urogenital system, Central Nervous system and Circulatory system.